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Pesquisar no documento. Az olyan szavakban, amelyekben nem az e s sztagra esik, nagybet kkel jeloli a hangs rlyt: gyon hangsrilyosan felhvja a sztrhasznl figyelmt: a magyzrrral ellenttb en az arrgol nyelvben llem minc]en sz ban az ugyanakkor azonban konnyen olvashat, s egy clologra na- Ezek utn a nevek utn tobbes szmti igt hasznlunk: The police are coming.
Igk dictate tdik-TET] cliktl dictation [dik-TEson] cliktls, tollbamoncls Fontos tudnival, hogy az Italunk hasznlt kiejtsi trsban haszrrlunk r-t, noha az angol nyelv bizonyos vltozataiban, mghozz ppen a brit koznyelvben a sz vgns zr mssallrangzk el tt rlem ejtjtik az r-t: Az angol igket nem ragozzuk, csak egyes szm harmadik sze mlyben kapnak -s vagy -es ragot.
A rendhagy tobbes szm alakokat kiejtisel egytitt jeloli a sztr: woman [vumon] tbsz: women [vimin] n vannak nem megszmllhatnak nevezett f nevek: ilyen pldul a water vz , meat h s , s az elvontabbak koztii az information informci , news hr , stb.
Jelcllttik viszont, ha valami a magyarral ellenttben tobbs szmri - akr -s vg , akr nem: police 1po-LSZ] grapes [grpsz] tbsz sz l tbsz vesstik ossze ezt a kt mondatot: It depends on the weather.
Erre kis jel figyelmeztet: : Nvel ket tetttink azok el a fldrajzi nevek el, amelyeket nvel vel hasznlunk.
A hagyomnyos sztri nyelvtanban ez a kifejezs: give sy lift. The latter despised the former and said his compositions were like huts of straw fit only for shelter, while his own were like the Five Phoenix Tower.
They will help' to add to and improve the Five Phoenix Tower. Three days after the departure of the songstress, her notes were still heard among the beams of a building near which she had sung.
Silk was used for writing in ancient times. The tlvreads in a Chinese stocking are very short, as the stocking is cut out diagonally from the cloth.
He was so devoted to books that he neglected sleep and food on their account. For an account of Po Chii-yi see flayers, No.
For an account of the latter. Li ii Hsiang B. When he was declared Emperor, it was found that T'ao Ku had an imperial proclamation ready drnfted announcing the facfc.
For an account of Hau Yii aliaa T'ui-chih i. He wa3 described as in the text by his brother. CHAPTER XXVII. Lu Ming is the title of an ode which was sung at entertainments given to the King's ministers and guests from the feudal states, and was afterwards sung' at the banquet given to graduates at the examination for the second degree.
He turned round to see if it was one of his attendants, but saw no one. The green and purple refer to the colours of the robes of tlie high officers of state.
In the time of the Five dynasties, an. Sun Shan was the last on the list of successful candidates. In the T'ang dynasty the examinations are said to have been very stiff.
See Eitel's Handbook of Chinese Buddhism, pages and See Mayers, Xo. For the latter see Eitel's Handbook, page See Eitel's Handbook, page Ming Ti reigned from A.
See Eitel's Handbook, pages 39 and Luan Pa was a president of a Board and was present at a feast given by the Emperor.
When presented with wine he drunk some aud spat it out in a South - w esterly direction. When accused of disrespect, lie explained his action by- stating that tliere was a fire in his native place and that he had spirted out the wine to quench it.
On inquiry it was found that a fire had broken out as he had stated, and that it had been quenched by rain from the North-east accompanied by a smell of wine.
Wu Meng is one of the patterns of filial piety. He became an adept in the arts of. Being hindered one clay from crossing a river, he waved a white fan over the surface of the watei 1 , by which means he was enabled to cross.
See Eitel's Handbook, Samgha, page BUDDHISM, TAOISM, GHOSTS AND SPIRITS. For Bhikchu see Eitel's Handbook, page In making honourable mention of upper and lower spirits there is therefore the laudatory expression P'u Sa.
For Kaljict see Eitel's Handbook, page G8. The Emperor, being surprised at his being able to come so regularly though his jurisdiction was so far off, ordered an officer to keep watch.
This officer saw two geese flying from the South-east which, being caught in a net, were found to be shoes. For an account of Wang Ch'iao sea Mayers, No.
His preaching had also the effect of making the heavenly flowers fall to earth. See also Mayers, No. It is narrated that after Yiian Chan had completed his treatise denying the existence of ghosts, a stranger came to visit him and argued the question with him.
Yiian not being convinced, the visitor said his unbelief was useless for lie himself was a ghost, and lie had no sooner declared himself than he disappeared out of sight.
Yen and Pu were disciples of Confucius. See ante page 26, No. The Emperor " grieving over the early death " of his people from many kinds of sickness, studied the " operations of the opposing principles of nature and " the constitution and.
Ch'ing Wu are said to refer to the colour of heaven and earth. Kuo P'o A. Sun Ssu-mo see Mayers No.
The prescription referred to in the text was obtained by Sun Ssd-mo through a dragon saved by him from death from drought. He is famous for having examined the physiognomy of Confucius.
The idea is that he is able to discern with the swiftness of wind and the clearness of a metallic mirror. See Mencius Lcgge, page For Wang Liang see Mencins Legge, page and Note.
For an account of Kuei Ku Tzu see Mayers, No. Tung Hu was a historiograj her in the state of before the time of Confucius.
The owner, struck by its great size, cut it open and found in it two old men playing at the game of chess. For Liu Pei see Mayers, No.
CHAPTER XXX. Such a space was a sufficient prison for the simple people of higli antiquity. AVlio then would dare to act the traitor or transgress the law?
The story is that a man of Wei, named Pond Fish, was burnt to death when a city gate cauglit fire. It would seem more natural to say, the fish in the city moat which, as they could not possibly have had any part in setting fire to the adjoining gate, were innocent sufferers from the conflagration.
Chou Hsing was accused of inciting to rebellion, and the Empress Wu directed Lai Hsiin-ch'en to inquire into the charge. The tvro ministers met at a feast and, while in the midst of their cups, Lai Hsiiii-ch'en complained to Chou Hsing of the difficulty of getting criminals to confess their crimes and asked him wliafc means he would suggest for overcoming the difficulty.
To this Chou Hsing replied that he would recommend the establishment of a large jar into which he would compel criminals to enter after having filled it inside and surrounded it outside with red hot charcoal, and tliat he thought they would soon confess if his scheme were adopted.
Lai Hsiin-cli'en carried out his suggestion fortliwith and, having arranged the jar in the manner proposed, told Chou Hsing' that he had been commissioned by the Empress to investigate liis crime and that lie would ask hira to be good enough to step inside the jar.
Chou Hsing, in great alarm,, fell on his knees and begged for pai'clon, which was. When a person suffers wrong through another's in- strumentality, he is said to have calamity married to him.
So called because the laws were written on bamboo three feet long. In ancient times when any one had committed an offence, an officer made of wood was placed in the door of the house of the accused who at once repaired to trial.
G , allowed a number of prisoners under sentence of deatli to return to tlieir homes to celebrate the new year, on condition that they would come back at a stated time.
They all returned according to their promise, which so pleased the Emperor that he permitted them all to go free.
POVERTY AND RICHES. See the same. Cash strings rotting and grain becoming musty " au expression of praise for great wealth.
CHAPTER XXXI. For an account of Ssu-ma Hsiang-ju see Mayers, No. For an account of Po Li-hsi see Mayers, Xo.
For an account of T'ao Chu see Mayers, No. Silk is generally made in the third moon and grain is gatlicretT in the sixth mobii, so that to sell silk in the second moon and grain in the fifth moon would he a desperate remedy to cover present need.
HUMAN AFFAIRS. See No. CHAPTER XXXII. These expressions are elliptical and mean " He under whose cabinet I am," " He uinler whose feet I am. Travellers nmst be provided with what is necessary for their expenses.
When Ying called, the door was answered by a chariot maker, who only half opened it. Many years afterwards Ying met this clmriofc maker and recognised him, though he had only seen half his face.
Not only did I charge you face to face, but I held you by the ears. The yellow river, it is said, becomes clear once in a thousand years. In the night Ko dreamt that the old man said to him.
Because " you followed the charge which your father gave you when " in his senses, I have thus recompensed you. The making of these wooden images led to the practice of burying living persons witli the dead.
Lu Pan being the god of carpenters, his door is the wrong place for showing off one's power of wielding- an a.
Even grass, when it has grown and spread all about, cannot be removed. Wei Cheng circ A. Wang Ming see ante, page No. He finally succeeded in getting I Jen restored to his native state of Ch'in.
Her fatlier told her that she should bare lier right shoulder if she preferred the son of the eastern family, and her left if her choice was the son of the western family.
See page , No. Afterwards they had to be exterminated, and those who assisted in the work of extermination were handsomely rewarded.
In time a fire did break oat, and those who came to put it out were scorched and bruised. N"oth withstanding this he who had advised the removal of the firewood was not even tlmuked, whereas those who had suffered in cstingnishing the flames Avcrc sumptuously en- tertained.
There happened to be a famine in the neighltomiiood, and a thief got into Chan's house and hid liimself among the rafters. Ch'en then told him that lie did not look like a bad man, and,, urging him to turn over a new leaf, presented him with some cloth and rice, and allowed him to depart.
The result was that all the robbers in the neig-libonrhood departed from their ways of wickedness. Wang Tun of Chin had long been meditating rebellion.
One night he dreamt lie held a piece of wood in his hand with which he was propping up heaven. There was once a woman of Ningpo who lost her hnsbancl and sons during an outbreak of rebels.
Not being able to find them, she took refuge in a nunneiy. While residing there she ono night dreamt she saw some one splitting open wheat and lily blossoms falling.
See ante, page 3G7, No. For an account of Yang Chen see Mayers, No. He was famous for bis justice and probity. When some one urged Yang to invest in propei ty, he replied, " if after generations call me the " poor official, will not that be a rich inheritance for " my 3.
The Chen is " a bird like the secretary falcon. It eats " snakes and is supposed to be so poisonous that fish " die where it drinks, the grass withers around its " nest, and its feathers steeped in spirits make a " virulent poison.
Haai Ti A. Chung Tsung A. For an account of Yang Kuei-fei see Mayers, No. CHAPTER XXXIII. Its seat is above the heart anrT below the throat.
Nothing can be done for it. He swallowed a leech in his food to save the cook from blame. The corpse in tlie coffin is called Chiu being 1 in tlie long Lome.
Legge, Vol. I" page He selected the spot, and his family prospered ever afterwards. Shih Wang of the Ch'in dynasty, made 12 copper men, and called them AYeng Chung.
See De Groot, Eeligious System of China, Yol. The hing-pu was an oblong piece of white linen, of which mourning clothes of the 3rd and 4th degree were made, suspended from the top of a pole like a banner.
It was used for wiping the coffin before covering it with a pall, and for giving signals to the men who drew the catafalque.
It is wrongly supposed to have been a kind of honorary banner signalising the virtues of the deceased. When the Ruler of Han ascended the throne under the title of Kao Ti, T'ien Heng and his followers fled to an island.
The Emperor despatched an ambassader to invite him to Court, and T'ien Heng accepted the invitation, but committed suicide on the way.
His followers carried his coffin to Court, but, not daring to weep, they expressed their grief in a dirge.
Fu Yi is famous among other thingsfor having written his own epitaph. He died of drink. Does not the Book of Odes " say : 'The brilliant white colt is there in that " ' empty valley, with a bundle of fresh grass.
Its " ' owner is like a gem. Wang Yu not Ngai, as erroneously stated in Mayers was a pattern of filial piety. He burst into tears when reading the ode referred to, so his disciples refrained from reciting it.
Characters are arranged under the radicals according to the number of strokes of which each character is composed. The numbers refer to the page and sentence where the phrase or character occurs.
EADICAL, 2. J RADICAL, 4. I J EADICAL, X INDEX. XIV INDEX. W , 3. B , 3. XXVI INDEX. RADICAL, ItADICAL, Jj- RADICAL, RADICAL, 11 5. I , 2. Go, 2.
W IG0, 3. This conduct on his par;, barbarous and extravagant as it may seem, may be considered as a concession to public opinion.
This unworthy person was deposed, and she was a second time chosen, and a second time she yielded the crown to another brother. Fnehdship, or the state of tninds unitecl by mu- tual benevolence, is a relation or virtue unknown to tbe Indian islanders.
Their beneficence seldom ertenAs beyond the narrow circle of their own relations and families. To their society or tribe the more improved na- tions of the Archipelago show a degree 6f fondness which may be favourably contrasted with the un- worthy apathy in this respect of the nations of Hindustan.
They are jealous in a considerable degree of the independence of their country, yet they are not heard to speak with enthusiasm on the subject, and probably would not make any cokiSa- derable sacrifice in its cause.
This passion is strongest with the agricultural tribes, from their more settled and less adventurous habits. The Javanese can hardly be persuaded, for any ambitious prospect, to quit the tombs of their fathers, and to remove them un- der any other circumstance, is literally tearing them from the soil.
Digitized by VjOOQ IC CHAPTER ni. In this Chaptor I shall endeavour to furnish the reader with a sketch of the domestic and familiar institutions and usages of the Indian islanders.
I shall, as on other occasions, hold the manners of the Javanese chiefly in view, taking care, as I proceed, to re- nuffk such important varieties or differences as the mannezs of other tribes may exhibit.
To marry their daughters about that age is a point of honour with parents, for obvious reasons, in a country where inclination is not restrained by the disci- pline of education and morals.
At the age of eighteen or twenty, a woman in Java is called an old maid, and an old maid is a suspected thing among the Javanese.
Prudential motives often induce the men to delay marriage even as late as the age of five and twenty. Widows marry at any age, even to fifty ; but they marry men of coirespohding ages with themselves ; widowers do the same thing ; so that among the Indian islanders one seldom sees any of those discordant matches, from disparity of ages, that frequently occur in other countries of the east.
Examples are even afforded of unions where the husband is younger than the wife, and those where the ages are equal are sufficiently common.
The courtshipj if it deserve the name, is con- ducted, not by the parties themselves, but by tkeir parents. Their youth, and the state of morals, generally render this necessary.
The slightest in- terference of the young people themselves would in- deed be deemed matter of the utmost scandal.
Con- versing with an old chief on this subject, he told me that the bridegroom and bride were looked upon, in his phrase, as puppets in tJie performance.
The Sumatran, on the contrary, when he fixes his choice, and pays all that he is worth, for the object of it, may naturally cofQsider the obligation on his side.
But stiJl they are not without gallantry. On these occasions, the unmarried people meet together, and dance and sing in company.
There are no persons, indeed, stigmatized by the name of bastards, in the state of society which exists in the Indian isles.
I shall describe the marriage ceremony of the Javanese in detail, may be supposed that the young ladies cannot be long with- out their particular admirers.
The men, when determined in their regards, generally employ an old woman as their agent, by whom they make known their sentiments, and send presents to the female of their choice.
The parents then interfere, and the preliminaries being settled, a bimbang takes place. Digitized by VjOOQIC FAMILIAR USAGES. The father of the young man, when he ima- gines he has found a suitable match for his son, waits upon the father of the young woman, and makes proposals.
A negociation commences, chiefly conducted by the women, which, if successful, ter- minates in the betrothing; and a trifling gift is presented by the future bridegroom, in earnest of the engagement.
The earnest delivered by the Malays is a quantity of prepared areca, which gives name to the ceremony. In the common marriages of the Indian island- ers, a price is universally paid by the husband for his wife ; and the third branch of the Javanese liiattiage cereitionies has reference to the arrange- ments for this important business, which are made ihe night before the nuptials.
Among some tribes, the money or goods go to the parents of the young woman, without limitation ; but in Java they are generally looked upon as a settlement or provision for the wife.
The only portion of Mahomedanism in the whole ceremony consists in the bridegroom's appear- ing at the mosque on the forenoon of the marriage day, with his father-in-law, when engaging for the mas kawiUy a trifling sum prescribed by the Ma- homedan law ; he is then married, and takes the vows according to the Mussulman ritual of mar- riage.
This last is a concession to their present form of worship ; the rest is entirely native. All the native ceremonies are solemnized at the house of the bride's father, and not at that of the bridegroom's father.
In some parts of the island of Java, so much deference is paid to the bride's inclinations, that if it be demanded, the husband, if of a different village or district, must come and xeside in the village of his spouse.
When I was Resident of Surabaya, in , a peasant came in- to the Court of Justice, claiming that his wife, a young girl whom he had just married, might be Digitized by VjOOQIC FAMILIAR USAeSS.
Nothing appeared more reasonable. The parties appeared parMmaOy in court j and the lady was inflexiUe in her determination to con- tinue in her own vlDage.
An old man was ex- ammed upon the cnsfom of the country, which. At the marriage of the young sultan of Java, already alluded to, this ridiculous object pre- VOJL.
Petty deviations of this sort are numerous, but, generally, not worth noticing. One practice, dictat- ed bysuperstition,asit illustrates the character of the people, may, however, be particularized.
Digitized by Google f AMILIAR USAOBi. The endless variety of ceremonies at births it would little interest Ae reader to repeat, and the detail would afford bim no insigbt into the cha- racter of the people.
When a woman quickens of her fiist child, tliis is the occasion of a festival ; when the seventh month of her pregnancy is suc- eessfuUy passed, this is one for another ; when the umlMlical cord drops off, this is the occasion of a third.
It is on this last tbat the child receives a name ; but tbey have no solemnity corresponding to our baptism. A native, accustomed to our manners, told me tbat they bestowed names upon tbeir chil- dren with as little ceremony as we did upon our doga or horses!
Those who have a smattering of nens putatur, ut aponss, quam maxime potest, resisteret ; ac ne uxor ipsa quidem, sed etiam consanguinei sui, pertinaciA qui contentio haec sustineatar, gaudent.
This is common with the Malayan tribes. The Jaranese content themselves with native names. This cere- mony is performed with a great deal of solemnity.
They chuse to Digitized by VjOOQ IC FAMILIAR USAGES. When a person dies in the evening, the body is kept until the following morning, but if he die whilst the sun is up, it is usually interred the same day.
Tbe observances of the funeral are almost purely Mohamedan. The body, after the customary ablutions, is wrapped in white cloth, and without a coffin deposited in the grave.
They are ge- nerally in a romantic spot, particularly a hill, at some distance from the village, and consist of have a general circumcision, when the sultan or goiu-rdl, or some other great person, hath a son fit to be circumcised ; for "With him a great many more are circumcised.
There is notice given about eight or ten days before for all men to ap. On this occasion, they kill and feast on a buffalo, and leave the head to decay on the spot, as a token of the honour they have done to the deceased, in eating to his memory.
The ancient burying-places are called krammatf and are supposed to have been those of the holy men bj 1 Digitized by VjOOQ IC FAMILUB USAGES.
A Javanese, as I have remarked in aRother place, cannot endure to be removed from these objects of his reverence and affection ; and when he is taken ill at a distance,.
In Java, conformably to this feeling, there is an annual festival on the eighth of the month of Shawid, held in honour of ancestors. On this occasion, the men, womeUi and children, dressed in their decent- est attire, repair to the burying grounds, and pass the day in devotion, each family strewing the tombs of its progenitors with the flower of the whom their aocestors were conyerted to the faith.
They are held in extraordinary reverence, and the least disturbance or violation of the ground, though all traces of the graves be obliterated, is regarded as an unpardonable sacrilege.
In exterior manner, the moat accompliflhed and courtly of the Indian islanders fall far short of that ease and elegance of address which is so ge- neral with the natives of Persia and HindustaOt and which, however hollow and insincere, must excite some share of our admiration.
It will be almost unnecessary to dweH upon those particulars in their external de- meanour, in which they agree with other orientals.
It is the custom to sit crossJegged and on the ground. When an infariw addresses a superior, his obeisanoe consists in raising his hands, with the palms join- ed before his face, until the thumbs touch the nose.
This he repeats at the end of every sentence, and if very courtly, at the conclusion even of each clause. When equals meet, their salutation is cold and distant, but in the ordinary intercourse of life, a relative superiority or inferiority of condition is usually confessed, and a demonstration of it con- Digitized by VjOOQ IC FAMILIAR USAQBS.
If a son has been long absent from his fiither, he throws himself at his feet and kisses them. An inferior never stands upright before a superior.
If he stand at all, the body is always bent ; if he sit, it is the same thing, and his eyes are fixed to the ground. When he advances and retires, he moves as if on aUUfouis, and crswls or creeps rather than walks.
There is one mode of demonstrating aflfection and respect, particularly nauseous and indelicate. It consists in the superior's offering to the inferior the chewed refuse of the betel and areca preparation as a mark of great affection, which the latter swaUows witib much satisfaction.
This is universal among all the tribes. The head and neck are the usual ob- jects of the embrace, the performance of which b always accompanied by an audible effort, corre- sponding with its literal import.
The naked hand alone is us- ed to convey the food to the mouth, which, con- sisting of rice of an adhesive character, which is readily wrought into a ball, and offish, or other animal food, cut into little fragments, renders su- perfluous either knife, fork, or spoon.
Ablutions stranger, who must take it with all the signs of humility and satisfaction, and chew it after him, and it is very dangerous to refuse the royal morsel.
Digitized by VjOOQ IC FAMILIAR USAGES. The names of both plants are nearly the same in every language of the Archipelago, and they are both indigenous.
They all strive to make these lumps as big as their mouths can receive them, and seem to vie with each otlier, and glory in taking in the biggest lump, so that some- times they almost choak themselves.
In coniir- mation of this, it may be observed, that among the Asiatic nations, the use of the preparatiiHi diminishes in frequency as we recede from the Archipelago, and that the neighbouring nations are to this day supplied with a great share of their C msumption of the drug from that country.
The wide extent of the practice of chewing the betel will surprise no one who considers the universal fascination of narcotic drugs, and who adverts, in confirmation of it, to the "wondeirfid history of the dissemination of the tobacco plant.
Persons of all ranks, from the prince to the peasant, are unceasingly masticating it, and seem to derive a solace from it which we can scarce under- Digitized by VjOOQ IC VAMILUB USAGES.
These nauseous particulars are, to the siltprise of strainers, considered a beauty, such is the effect of CQStmn. It makes the mouth red.
They say they do it to comfort the heart, nor could live without it. It is sotOt which also means a game-cock. This points at the estimation in which both the plant and animal are held.
The Indian islanders are well known to be pas- sdonately addicted to the habitual use qf opium, and yet the general use of this drug is but of compara- tively recent introduction.
It is consumed, of course, in greatest quantity where it is cheapest, and a very inconsiderable rise or fall in price will augment or diminish the consumption in a surprising degree, even in countries where the people have been long accustomed to the habitual use of it.
The abuse of it is soon discovered by those accustomed to ob- serve its victims. It produces general emacia- tion, a wild stare of the eye, a oough, a hectic, and a total loss of appetite.
The whole of the tribes d the Indian islands invariably smoke, instead of eating or chewing opium, like the Turks, and other people of Asia.
The case is eiactly reversed with respect to it and tobacco. The mode of pre- paring and using it is well described by Mr Mars- den.
This preparation of the opium is called maodiat, and is often adulterated in the process, by mixing jaggri, or pne sugar, with it ; as is the raw opium, by incorporating with it the fruit of the pisang, or plantain.
I look upon this to be a constitutional matter, and the re- sult of climate, for I believe the passion for spiri- tuous liquor has never been known to exert a per- nicious influence over the inhabitants of tropical climates.
They manufacture a sort of beer from rice, by a cheap and expeditious process, and their many palms affqrd a cheap and abundant supply of wine of an agreeable taste, and, when in a state offer- mentation, highly intoxicating.
Of these resources they cannot be said to take an undue advantage. Some of the tribes are restrained, indeed, by re- ligious motives, but others, who have no scruples of this description, are sober, and although an occasional debauch may be committed, habitual drunkenness is so rare, that in my extensive inter- course, I cannot remember a single example of it.
Digitized by Google CHAPTER IV. The Indian islanders, like all people unaccuston- ed to regular and systematic occupation and indus- try, are passionately fond of play, and those tribes naturally carry it to the greatest degree of extrava- gance whose habits and lives are most irregular and unsettled.
The Malays and inhabitants of Celebes are, by their extravagant attachment to gaming, distinguished beyond all the rest. Such exhibitions, however, are not confined to this more dissolute class.
Of the passion of the Javanese for play, we have another striking illustration in the artifice resorted to by the proprietors of treasure, or other valuable property, to protect it at night frmn the depredation Digitized by VjOOQ IC OF THE INDIAN I8L ANBERS.
Ill of thieves, when it is transported from one part of the country to another. Among the Malays and people of Celebes, the influence of play is still more violent.
After los- ing their money, they stake their jewels, their side- arms, their slaves, and, it is often alleged, men their wives and children, or, in the last extremity, their own personal freedom.
With these tribes, the disputes which arise at the gaming-table are often terminated by the dagger, or generate in- curable feuds between families.
Games of hazard are the favourites of the In- dian islanders. They do not much practise games of sedentary ddll, and games'of exercise are neither congenial to their habits, nor to the climate they inhabit.
From them, too, they have acquired the knowledge of cards, and of a kind of faro. From the Portuguese they have acquired the knowledge of dice, as the name daduj implies.
Among the Javanese, the only game of pure hazard of native origin, consists in guessing the number of beans, of certain de- scription, which the players hold in their hands.
It is called by them Talagatari. Of the sedentary games of skill, the native ones are a variety of descriptions played on checkers resembling our draughts.
Of the celebrated game of chess, supposed'to have been invented by the Hindus, I must on this account say more than would otherwise be necessa- ry.
The collateral evidence afforded on this sub- ject, from an examination of its history among the Indian islanders, does not tend to corroborate the hypothesis of chess having been invented by the Hindus.
The Javanese, the tribe with whom the intercourse with the ancient Hindus was most bu- sy, hardly know the game but by report, and even thus far they know it only by its Persian name.
The evidence of language not only shows this, but shows also that the Telingas must themselves have borrowed Digitized by VjOOQ IC OF TBE IKBIAN IHLAKDERS.
Bidahf a pawn, is but a corruption of the Persiftn word piadah, a foot-soldier ; ter, the Malayan name of the castle, is of the vemaodar language of Kalinga J md mat is not, as some have imagined, a corruption of the Malayan word maH, dead, but the true Persian word for check-mate, borrowed by our- selyes, and still more accurately by the French.
Is it not probable, that, had the Hindus, when they enjoyed a monopoly of the intercourse with the Indian islanders, known the game of chess, they would have recommended themselves to a people passionately addicted to play, by instructing them in this interesting game?
They did not in- strufCt them ; and the probability therefore is, that they themselves did not understand it. Sir Wil- liam Jones acknowledges, that no account of such a game exists in the writings of the Brahmans.
The cock, from his superior courage, is the great favourite ; and the diversion of cock- fighting is most especially in vogue among the Malays, the people of Celebes, and the Balinese.
The breed most esteemed is the produce of Celebes. Quail-fighting, more particularly among the Ja- vanese, is extremely common. The most famous breed is brought from the island of Lombok.
It is singular that it is the female, the male being com- paratively a timid and small bird, which is used in these bitter, but bloodless combats.
The little animals are excited to the combat by the titillation of a blade of grass judiciously applied to their noses I!
The puerility of the Javanese in matters of this sort does not end here. In a favourable day, fifty or sixty of these will be sometimes seen hovering over a Java- nese city.
The buf- falo of the Indian islands is an animal of great size and strength, and of no contemptible courage ; for he is an overmatch for the royal tiger, hardly ever failing to come off victorious in the fight with him.
It must be confessed that there is no small satisfaction in seeing this peaceful and docile animal destroy his ferocious and savage enemy.
Neither are possess- ed of much active courage j the tiger, indeed, is a coward, and fights only perfidiously, or through necessity.
On this account, it is necessary to con- fine them within very narrow limits, and farther, to goad them by various contrivances.
A strong cage, of a circular form, about ten feet in diame- ter, and fifteen feet high, partly covered at the topf is for this purpose constructed, by driving stakes into the ground, which are secured by being interwoven with bamboo.
The buffalo is first in- troduced, and the tiger let in afterwards from an aperture. The tiger, soon convinced of the su- perior strength of his antagonist, endeavours to avoid him, and when he cannot do so, springs in- sidiously upon his head and neck.
In the first combat of this nature to which I was witness, the buffalo, at the very first efibrt, broke his antago- nist's ribs against the cage, and he dropped down dead.
The buffalo is not always so fortunate. In nine- teen cases out of twenty, however, the bufialo is the victor. Afier the first onset, there is little satis- faction in the combat ; for the animals, having ex- perienced each other's strength and ferocity, are reluctant to engage, and the practices used to goad them to a renewal of the fight are abominable.
The tiger is roused by firebrands and boiling water, and the bufialo, by pouring upon his hide a potent in- Aision of capsicums, and by the application of a most poisonousnettle, kamaduy a single touch of wfaiek would throw the strongest human frame into a fever.
Wild hogs, which are in vast abundance in Java, are ensnared and fought against rams and goats, a ludicrous, but bloodless combat. The wild boar of Java is an animal of little ferocity, and not much strength.
Digitized by VjOOQ IC or THE INDIAN ISLANDEHS. German invasion of Belgium with airships Great Britain is in a state of war with Germany.
It was officially stated at the Foreign Office last night that Great Britain declared war against Germany at 7pm.
The British Ambassador in Berlin has been handed his passport. War was Germany's reply to our request that she should respect the neutrality of Belgium, whose territories we were bound in honour and by treaty obligations to maintain inviolate.
Speaking in a crowded and hushed House the Premier yesterday afternoon made the following statement: 'We have made a request to the German Government that we shall have a satisfactory assurance as to the Belgian neutrality before midnight tonight.
The King and His Navy The King has addressed the following message to Admiral Sir John Jellicoe: 'At this grave moment in our national history I send to you and, through you, to the officers and men of the fleets, of which you have assumed command, the assurance of my confidence that under your direction they will revive and renew the old glories of the Royal Navy, and prove once again the sure shield of Britain and of her Empire in the hour of trial.
It was reported yesterday evening that Germany had taken the first hostile step by destroying a British mine-layer.
At the present time Germany is in a state of war with: Great Britain, Russia, France and Belgium. Germany tried to bribe us with peace to desert our friends and duty.
But Great Britain has preferred the path of honour. Nice one Rob. Never before had I read these articles before and directly after the declaration of war.
Originally Posted by Skafloc. Thanks for the transcripts Rob.. I had forgotten just how powerful the 'lamps out over Europe' quote was as well.
August 6, Austro-Hungary declares war on Russia,and Serbia declares war on Germany. French and British troops invade the German colony of Togo in West Africa.
Twenty days later, the German governor there surrenders. The march for Polish independence after years of non-existence begins to reach the glorious final on 11th of November, August 7, - The first British troops land in France.
The , highly trained members of the regular British Army form the British Expeditionary Force BEF commanded by Field Marshal John French.
The French desire to score a quick victory ignites the first major French-German action of the war. The French Army invades Alsace and Lorraine according to their master strategy known as Plan XVII.
However, the French offensive is met by effective German counter-attacks using heavy artillery and machine-guns. The French suffer heavy casualties including 27, soldiers killed in a single day, the worst one-day death toll in the history of the French Army.
The French then fall back toward Paris amid , total casualties. On August 7, , New Zealand's excited restlessness gave way to imperial duty as the British Empire accepted an offer of troops for the war effort.
Thousands pressed to enlist for duty and among them was John Quinn Adamson - Otago's first volunteer. These daily updates are fascinating are we going to be able to have something for every day of the next 4 years - now there is a challenge folks I will try to get something of interest on any days that I am at home, but even then there are a few breaks.
For instance I have something ready for tomorrow but then there is a lull of a couple of days where nothing much seems to take place.
I will try trawling some more newspapers if I can. You are a good man Rob - I think this should be a challenge for everyone rather than just you - so come on chaps, lets see what we can do My snippet for the day August 8, - Britain enacts the Defense of the Realm Act DORA granting unprecedented powers to the government to control the economy and daily life.
August 8th French troops under Gen Bonneau occupy Mulhouse at Elzas. Montenegro declares war on Germany. Originally Posted by Flying Officer Kyte.
August 9th HMS Birmingham sinks German submarine U "The look-out of the questing Birmingham suddenly sighted, amidst the wraiths of mist, the hull of U, lying immobile and hove-to.
It would seem that no watch was being kept in the submarine, and, from the sounds of hammering which pierced the haze, the crew was apparently trying to remedy an engine breakdown.
Altering course, and making sure that U was within her turning circle, the Birmingham bore down, opening a rapid fire at close range.
The submarine slowly began to move through the water, but it was too late. The bows of the light cruiser caught her fair and square, cutting her completely in two.
The two severed parts of U appeared to float for a short time, possibly because the sheared plating was folded over at the point where her hull had been rammed, so partially sealing and making watertight the severed ends.
Only temporary repairs could be effected to the light cruiser, owing to the urgent demand for her services; for several months the Birmingham bore evidence of her success in the shape of two long scars, almost exactly symmetrical in length and pattern, which defaced her bows.
August 9th The first British troops are landed at Boulogne. Belgium rejects a German peace offer. German cavalry are fighting in streets of St Trond.
The first battle of Müllhausen, in which the German Seventh Army are heavily engaged. The French army is forced to retire under heavy fire.
August 10th Western Front. Liege: the Germans occupy the city. Eastern Front East Prussia: Russians reach Tilsit. What if the baby has a red butt?
In summer, Mother has a lot of…. That is actor Zhang Jianing and his uncle Zhang….ffi. ffi ^-im _. When World War I began, he was a nineteen-year-old cadet of medium height and slender build with blue eyes. Eschwege began his combat career as an ensign with the 3rd Mounted Jaeger Regiment on the Western Front. On 9 and 10 August , he fought in the Battle of Mulhouse;. Full text of "History of the Indian Archipelago: Containing an Account of the Manners History of the Indian Archipelago: Containing an Account of the Manners ".
Verschiedenste Maschinen Slender The Arrival LГ¶sung und bekannte Spiele auch per Video zu erleben. - In Jemanden Verliebt Sein GruГџ, HedonymusIt is recommended by physicians and pharmacists as Fremdgeh Seiten antioxidant and substance that blocks the action of proinflammatory cytokines proteinse.